DIVA is an online resource developed by David Deacon and James Stanyer of the Centre for Research in Communication and Culture, Loughborough University in collaboration with Business Intelligence And Strategy (B.I.A.S) and is supported Research England's Higher Education Innovation Fund.

If using DIVA for published research we would appreciate your support by citing the paper that inspired its development: Deacon, D. & Stanyer, J. (2018) Media Diversity and the Quantification of Qualitative Variation, Loughborough: Centre for Research in Communication and Culture, Loughborough University (Email: d.n.deacon@lboro.ac.uk for access to the paper)

Download Paper Here

If using DIVA for published research we would appreciate your support by citing the paper that inspired its development: Deacon, D. & Stanyer, J. (2018) Media Diversity and the Quantification of Qualitative Variation, Loughborough: Centre for Research in Communication and Culture, Loughborough University (Email: d.n.deacon@lboro.ac.uk for access to the paper)

Download Paper Here

Key Features of Website

Statistical calculations

Automatically calculates 7 diversity measures for categorical data.

Bootstrapping

Provides automated confidence intervals for diversity scores using bootstrappping resampling methods.

Hypothesis Testing

Provides two-way hypothesis test using permutation testing and resampling.

*Calculating Diversity Scores for Categorical Data *

DIVA is an online resource for analysing diversity in statistical distributions that attain the nominal/ categorical level of measurement.

This service allows you to enter frequency distributions with up to thirty categories to calculate:

- Diversity scores using six existing measures of qualitative variation:
- Simpsons’ D1-\frac{\sum{n(n-1)}}{N(N-1)}n = number of cases in a category. N = total number of cases in a sample.
- HREL-\sum^k_{i=1}\frac{f_i}{N}log_2\frac{f_i}{N}the minus sign is to make the final value of HREL positive.
- the Index of Qualitative Variation (IQV)\frac{K(100^2-\sum{Pct^2})}{100^2(K-1)}K = number of categories in the distribution.
- the Deviation from the Mode (DM)1 - \frac{\sum^K_{i=1}(f_m-f_i)}{N(K-1)}the frequency of the ith category.
- the Mean Difference Analog (MDA)1 - \frac{\sum^{K-1}_{i=1}\sum^K_{j=i+1}|f_i-f_j|}{N(K-1)}
- Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)H = \sum^N_{i=1}s^2_isi is the market share of firm i in the market, and N is the number of firms.

- A new diversity measure – the Diversity Average (DIVa) – which integrates the most stable of the above measures.
- Population estimates for each of these descriptive measures, using bootstrap resampling methods (based on 10,000 resamples with replacement)
- Bi-variate hypothesis testing, using permutation testing (based on 10,000 resamples without replacement).

Do you want to:

1. Analyse diversity scores and confidence intervals for one variable?

2. Analyse and compare diversity scores and confidence intervals for two variables and then test whether the observed differences in diversity scores are statistically significant?

The authors of this website

Professor of Communication and Media Analysis

BA (Hons) Communication Studies, MA in Mass Communications , PhD. David Deacon teaches on the BSc in Communication and Media Studies, MA in Media and Cultural Analysis and MA in Global Media and Cultural Industries. More information about publications, research, information for students and other matters can be found on his home page.

Professor of Communication and Media Analysi

Head of Department of Social Sciences, Professor of Communication and Media Analysis. James Stanyer gained a PhD in Government from the London School of Economics in 1999. His research and teaching interests lie primarily in the areas of national and transnational political communication.

*If using DIVA for publication, we would appreciate your support by citing the paper that inspired its development*

Deacon, D. & Stanyer, J. (2018) Media Diversity and the Quantification of Qualitative Variation, Loughborough: Centre for Research in Communication and Culture, Loughborough University (Email: d.n.deacon@lboro.ac.uk for access to the paper)